Business Visa (B-1) & Pleasure/Medical Visa (B-2)
A citizen of a foreign country who wishes to enter the United States must, in most cases, first obtain a visa to do so. This can be either a nonimmigrant visa for a temporary stay or an immigrant visa for permanent residence.
For many, a "B" visitor visa is the easiest and most appropriate one to get. The B visa a nonimmigrant visa for persons desiring to enter the United States temporarily for business (B-1) or for pleasure or medical treatment (B-2). People planning to travel to the U.S. for a different purpose, such as as to study, perform temporary work, act as journalists, and so forth, must apply for a different visa in the appropriate category.
The exception to the need to obtain an entry visa is that travelers from certain eligible countries may be able to visit the U.S. without advance permission, through the Visa Waiver Program (VWP). To find out whether your country is on the VWP list, check the "Visa Waiver Program" page of the U.S. State Department's website. However, Visa Waiver entrants cannot extend their stay beyond 90 days, while B-2 visitors can request an extension. Also, Visa Waiver visitors cannot, in most cases, change to another status while in the United States. The upshot is that a B visa, though less convenient, offers greater rights and possibilities than the Visa Waiver Program does.
Qualifying for a B-1 or B-2 Visa
Although the application process for a visitor visa is fairly simple, successfully obtaining the visa is harder than you might expect. The U.S. State Department, via its consulates around the world, denies a surprising number of visitor visa applications. For that reason, it's important to understand the eligibility criteria.
Applicants for visitor visas must demonstrate that:
- the purpose of their trip is to enter the U.S. for business, pleasure, or medical treatment
- they plan to remain within the U.S. for a specific, limited period, and
- they have a residence outside the U.S. as well as other binding ties that will ensure their return at the end of the visit.
Each of these criteria is very important, and you'll need to provide convincing proof that you meet them, as discussed below.
Alien truck drivers may qualify for admission as B-1 visitors for business if they'll be picking up or delivering cargo that's in the stream of international commerce. Please see, “How Do I Enter the United States as a Commercial Truck Driver”, on the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) website, for more information.
What Does It Mean to Be Coming for Business, Pleasure, or Medical Treatment?
If you're coming to the U.S. for purposes such as making investments, buying goods, attending seminars, or performing other temporary work for an employer that is based outside the United States, then a B-1 is the appropriate visa for you. These are all considered "business purposes." Note, however, that you may not be paid by a source within the United States.
If you're coming solely for purposes of pleasure, such as traveling, visiting family, participating in amateur sports or musical events, or taking non-academic courses of less than 18 hours a week, then a B-2 visa is right for you. You may not work in the U.S. at all if you enter on a tourist visa.
Finally, people coming to the U.S. for medical treatment can also use a B-2 visa. The expectation here is that you're seeking treatment that isn't available in your home country and that you'll be paying the bills.
Application Process for a B-1 or B-2 Visa
In order to apply for this visa, you'll need to prepare or collect the following:
- Form DS-156, Nonimmigrant Visa Application
- Visa application fee
- Visa issuance fee
- USCIS Form I-134, Affidavit of Support (if you will depend on someone in the U.S. for financial support)
- Your passport, valid for at least six months
- One passport style photo
- Documents showing the purpose of your trip, such as an itinerary, hotel arrangements, and train tickets
- Documents showing that you plan to return to your home country, such as proof of ownership of real estate, of relationships with close family members whom you're leaving behind, and an employer letter showing that you haven't quit your job and it will remain open until you return
- Proof of ability to cover your expenses (other than the Affidavit described above), such as bank statements and evidence of income
- If coming for business purposes, a letter from your foreign employer describing your position and explaining what you'll be doing for it during your visit. The letter should specify that you'll be paid only from sources outside the U.S., and when you'll be expected to return. If attending a business event such as a trade show, supply flyers, your exhibitor contract, and similar information.
- If coming for medical treatment, a statement by your doctor containing your diagnosis and the reason why you must visit the U.S. for treatment, as well as a letter from the doctor or facility from which you'll receive treatment in the U.S., saying how long your treatment will last and listing the expected costs, as well as your own proof of financial resources to cover the trip and your medical expenses.
When ready, you'll take or mail these to a U.S. consulate in your home country. Check the website of your local consulate, accessible through the "Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, & Diplomatic Missions" page of the State Department website, for exact application instructions. You'll most likely need to attend an in-person interview at the embassy or consulate, if you're between age 14 and age 79.
What Privileges You'll Receive With Your Visa
Upon each entry to the U.S., you'll probably be given a required departure date of between 30 days and one year into the future. The B-1 business visitors are usually allotted the longest stays. Your required departure date will be shown on your Form I-94 Arrival/Departure Record.
Don't make the mistake of assuming that you can stay in the U.S. until the expiration date on your B visa itself. The visa is an entry document, and its expiration date reflects the last date upon which you can use it to enter the United States. Many B visas are "multiple entry," meaning you can use them over and over again for U.S. entry. But if you ever stay beyond the date shown on your I-94, your visa may be cancelled.
A B-1 or B-2 Visa Doesn't Guarantee U.S. Entry
Applicants should be aware that no visa guarantees entry into the United States. Immigration authorities have the authority to deny admission, perhaps because the person appears to be a security risk, or appears to be using the visa for reasons other than business, pleasure, or medical treatment. For example, if a border office examines your suitcase and finds that you're carrying a wedding dress and the USCIS forms for applying for a green card, yet you've entered on a tourist visa, you're likely to be sent straight back home.